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1 Introduction

The 2nd Young Engineers' Satellite project (YES2) is an ESA initiated space education project which started in 2002. The objective of the YES2 spaceman project is to:

Create enthusiasm in students for space engineering and motivate them to excel,
by awareness of, competing for, creating and operating a highly visible yet
inherently safe space experiment.

The first phase of YES2 (2002-2003) focused on the concept design of An Inherently Reentry vehicle (AIR) and the building and testing of a tether deployment mechanism. During this phase, over 400 students from 29 universities were reached with more than 100 students actively participating in initial design contests. The preliminary YES2 system design resulting from this first project phase is documented in YES2-PDR-DU-03. Phase I ends with the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) taking place at ESA/ESTEC on December 10th and 11th 2003.
After PDR, the YES2 project will enter phase II which will see a detailed design of the different subsystems, leading up to the building and testing of the actual space hardware. For this second phase, a stronger project focus and associated management structure is required to successfully achieve a detailed design and to start building the test hardware for a flight on Foton-M3 in autumn 2006. Such a project focus and structure will also allow a better visibility of the YES2 project both within the educational field and to the public at large. Delta-Utec SRC has therefore identified 5 YES2 Centers of Expertise at universities where, in co-operation with Delta-Utec SRC, most of the YES2 development work will be performed. These 5 YES2 Centers of Expertise (CoE) are:
o Kent (UK)
o Patras (Greece)
o Reggio Emilia (Italy)
o Remagen (Germany)
o Samara (Russia)

The Center of Expertise (CoE) philosophy will help to:

Achieve the educational goal of the YES2 project by strengthening the relationship
between the ESA Education office, Delta-Utec SRC and European universities

Provide continuity to the YES2 development and expertise by formalizing a project
structure which can better appropriate typical group projects, internships or
master thesis periods for individual YES2 students. Supervision and involvement of
a (PhD) student or Professor in the individual CoE is therefore foreseen.

It is the intention of the ESA Education office in case of a successful implementation of the YES2 Centers of Expertise to extend in the future the concept to general ESA (educational) Centers of Expertise.

This document describes the concept of the Centers of Expertise. For a more detailed description on the tasks of each CoE we kindly refer to [YES2-PDR-DU-05] and the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and Work Package Description (WPD).

2 Center of Expertise set-up
This section describes the structural set up of the YES2 Centers of Expertise. The geographical location of the 5 Centers of Expertise is provided in Figure 1. The Centers of Expertise are located throughout Europe and Russia at Universities which have already been involved in the first phase of the YES2 project with student assignments, group projects etc. It is foreseen that the Centers will become the main focal points of YES2 development work for phase II and beyond. Students from other universities throughout Europe are invited to these YES2 centers to perform part of their curriculum (e.g. PhD, master thesis, internships etc). A dedicated YES2 project room will be created at these Centers where the YES2 project resides and where the students have the facilities available to perform their work. By creating a dedicated room, the YES2 project will become a lively team effort at these Centers thereby allow the project to acquire momentum and continuity beyond the individual assignments of students. The Centers of Expertise will be supported by a responsible from the university staff and a part-time employed (PhD) student who will oversee the daily management of the YES2 Center. They will maintain an overview of the different tasks being performed at the Centers and will regularly interface with YES2 project management at Delta-Utec. It is currently intended to have on average more than 3 students working on YES2 in each Center of Expertise. The Centers will be 'officially' opened in January/February 2004.

2.1 Centers of Expertise
The expertise and high level tasks of the individual Centers within the YES2 project are depicted in Figure 2. In order to visualize the position of each center within the YES2 project, the phase II Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is repeated here (Figure 3) (preliminary timeline TBD). Note that the WBS presents the management outline. The more detailed task breakdown into realistic student assignments will be coordinated between Delta-Utec and the respective Centers of Expertise.

Figure 3 YES2 Phase II Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

2.1.1 CoE Kent
The electronics department of the University of Kent (UK) is identified as the CoE on YES2 electronics. This Center of Expertise is referred to as 'CoE Kent'. The initial contact person and representative of CoE Kent is lecturer Dr. Rodney Buckland (rab@kent.ac.uk).

2.1.2 CoE Patras
The department of mechanical engineering (AML) of the University of Patras (Greece) is identified as the CoE on YES2 mechanical design. It is referred to as 'CoE Patras'. The initial contact person of this CoE is Mr. Vavouliotis (PhD) (vavoul@mech.upatras.gr).

2.1.3 CoE Reggio Emilia
The mechanical department (DISMI) of the University of Reggio Emilia (Italy) is identified as the CoE on the YES2 inflatable capsule. It is referred to as 'CoE Reggio Emilia'. The contact person and representative of this CoE is Prof. Eugenio Dragoni (eugenio.dragoni@unimore.it).

2.1.4 CoE Remagen
The departments Remagen and Krefeld of the University of Koblenz (Germany) are together identified as the CoE on the FLOYD tether system and tether test rig. This Center of Expertise is referred to as 'CoE Remagen'. The contact person and representative is Prof. Ferdi Hermanns (herm@nns.de).

2.1.5 CoE Samara
The aerodynamics department of the Samara State Aerospace University (SSAU, Russia) is identified as the CoE on the YES2 (aero) dynamics and aerothermodynamics. This Center of Expertise is referred to as 'CoE Samara'. The contact person and representative of the CoE Samara is Prof. Igor Belokonov (acad@mb.ssau.ru).

2.2 CoE structure
2.2.1 Personnel

The YES2 Centers of Expertise will be responsible for the daily management and continuity of their Centers. With the educational character of the project, two different types of tasks can be distinguished,
Educational task:
Students working at the Center of Expertise perform their work on YES2 as part of their curriculum. The Center of Expertise (i.e. university) will provide to the students the required educational supervision, guidance and support. It will also provide access to the university structure for support.
Management task:
The YES2 project will be an umbrella under which the students perform their curriculum work. To keep consistency with YES2 project requirements (documentation, timelines etc.) the Centers of Expertise will provide (part-time) management of the Center and interface to Delta-Utec. Especially since the project is on a tight schedule to meet the major milestones for a flight on the FOTON-M3 mission end 2006, it is very important to have good co-ordination and management of the Centers to successfully appropriate students assignments in the overall YES2 project timeline.
A proposed set up of the Center of Expertise structure is provided in Figure 4.

The CoE responsible will be responsible for:
- Educational objective of the CoE
- Performance of the CoE tasks
- Provision of support within university
- Reaching the major milestones
- Distribution and spending of the available budget
- Interface with DU on task description etc
The CoE supervisor will be responsible for: Daily management of CoE
- YES2 CoE facility, hardware, resources
- CoE interface to Delta-Utec management
Provision of YES2 documentation, setting up progress meetings, reporting, etc
- System engineering overview (??)
Interface with Delta-Utec about student resources at Center of Expertise, planning of student exchange etc.
Delta-Utec will provide overall YES2 management and system engineering to all Centers of Expertise. Regular contact with the CoE supervisors will secure a constructive and up to date control and supervision. Some of the most important interfaces with the CoE's are listed here:
- Task description management
- Organization of meetings, YES2 documentation
- Specific YES2 technical support to the students
- System engineering support in cooperation with CoE supervisors
- Cooperation with CoE's for placement of students
- YES2 budget allocation and control

How the tasks are appropriated within the Centers of Expertise will be discussed and decided upon for each individual Center of Expertise. The function of CoE responsible has to be fulfilled by a university staff member (the CoE contact persons mentioned before). The position of CoE supervisor is foreseen to be performed by either a PhD student or a well-qualified master student (e.g. as 6-month internship). The initial budget provided to the CoE's is intended to pay a small salary to this CoE supervisor. In case the CoE supervisor is replaced it should always be communicated with Delta-Utec SRC. The details will be clarified for each individual case after signature of the Letter of Intention. A preliminary YES2 team structure is provided in Figure 5.

2.2.2 Facilities
Each CoE will provide an office, room or lab where the YES2 students have access. The CoE will also provide facilities for the testing of YES2 hardware. It will be possible to either lock the office or have a cupboard where subsystems can be locked away. Each student at the CoE will have access to a PC with an email account, Internet access and Microsoft Office (Word and Excel). Also software licenses necessary for the expertise (like FEM packages or PCB design software) should be available. The students will have access to a telephone that allows international phone calls.

2.2.3 Inventory Control
Each Center should have an excel sheet containing the inventory control. Components or sub-systems for flight or bread boarding shall be listed in the Excel sheet. Also lab equipment with a value above 50 Euros shall be listed. An example of such a table is provided below.

3 Budget
3.1 Budget allocation and control

Yes2 budget allocation for the Center of Expertise consists of a YES2 hardware budget and an initial budget for setting up the YES2 Center of Expertise.

3.1.1 YES2 hardware budget
Table 2 provides the ROM indication of the hardware budget for the different Centers of Expertise (NOTE: ROM indication not yet approved by ESA). Delta-Utec SRC will reserve a budget for each task or component. This budget is presented in YES2-PDR-DU-05, Management Design and Development plan.
The procedure for a CoE on spending this hardware budget is as follows: A Request for Spenditure is provided to Delta-Utec SRC by the CoE responsible (?) using the Request for Spenditure template. This template contains a description of the item to be purchased, the details of the manufacturer, the quotation of the manufacturer including delivery time and if applicable a discussion of alternatives. It will be evaluated whether Delta-Utec DRC will purchase the item or the CoE after which Delta-Utec SRC will reimburse the center. On approval by Delta-Utec SRC the item can be purchased. No reimbursement can be guaranteed in case the Request for Spenditure has not approved by Delta-Utec SRC prior to purchase.

3.1.2 YES2 CoE set-up budget
Delta-Utec SRC will allocate an initial budget of 5 KEURO to support the set-up of each Center of Expertise. An additional 5 KEURO is reserved for upgrading of the Centers when the major needs have been identified (April 2004). This budget is primarily meant to support hours spend on setting up and managing the YES2 Center, e.g. providing a small salary to the CoE supervisor. It is not intended for buying new computers and/or software although the allocation is flexible and will be further discussed between Delta-Utec SRC and the CoE's in the coming weeks. It is intended to officially open the Centers in January and February 2004. Preparations already start before the YES2 PDR.

3.2 Additional budget
The Centers of Expertise are requested to pro-actively search for additional budget to enable students to work on and travel for YES2. This section provides some initial ideas. It is part of the CoE supervisor task to oversee budget requirements, so he/she is also encouraged to look for additional funding with Delta-Utec support.

3.2.1 Leonardo Da Vinci, Socrates or National or University grants
Many Universities have a department that arranges for students to travel abroad or to receive foreign students for an internship or partial study. The CoE supervisor is requested to discuss opportunities for the YES2 Center.

3.2.2 Request EC for additional budget
Delta-Utec SRC will initiate a request for budget at the European Commission. Education, innovation and network are keywords sensitive for subsidizing. The Centers of Expertise will be involved in case a proposal has to be written. Focus will be on supervision of the YES2 students.

3.2.3 Request ESA Education office for additional budget

Two funding possibilities are identified at the ESA education office Affiliation
The CoE can request to the ESA education additional funding for organizing YES2 related events [see http://www.estec.esa.nI/outreach/affiliation/1, [XXX, TBC Inaki]. Examples are open days or work shops. PhD plan
ESA will employ a plan to financially support PhD students. It is suggested to have a PhD student apply for such a grant in order to supervise YES2 locally. [XXX, contact person?]

3.2.4 Local or National industry sponsors

Local or National industries can be approached to sponsor with money, man-hours or facilities the CoE.

4 Management

Delta-Utec SRC is prime contractor for the YES2 project and is responsible for all materials and hardware to be delivered under the ESA contract. It provides overall YES2 project management and system engineering. The YES2 Centers of Expertise will be responsible on a best effort basis for their assigned tasks and deliverables.


The CoE responsible will be responsible for the definition and maintenance of an up-to-date Work Break Down Structure (WBS) and Work Package Description (WPD) of the Center of Expertise. He/she is responsible for the accuracy of the WBS/WPD and has to agree on all changes made to it.

4.2 Timeline
The CoE responsible will be responsible for a realistic and up-to-date timeline for the tasks of the CoE. This timeline shall include national holidays and exam periods at the University.

4.3 Reporting
In case there are arising problems in a task or in the timeline, the CoE is invited to notify Delta-Utec SRC as soon as possible. It is our shared responsibility to solve problems and delays.

4.4 Meetings & reviews

Each CoE should have a weekly meeting where the progress, timeline and problem areas are discussed. Minutes of Meeting (MoM) shall be written down in the YES2 CoE MoM template and these MoM will be provided to Delta-Utec SRC the next day by email. In case of little activity at the CoE (e.g. exam period) the meeting may be postponed. This will also be notified to Delta-Utec SRC the next day. For each YES2 review at ESA it will be assessed whether a representative of the CoE can be invited.

4.5 Student resources

It is the shared responsibility of Delta-Utec SRC and the Center of Expertise to have available enough students to perform the assigned tasks of the Centers of Expertise. The CoE is expected to actively promote the YES2 project to the students at their university. Delta-Utec SRC will contribute by actively promoting the YES2 project at the other participating YES2 universities which have been involved since phase I. If a problem is foreseen, this will be communicated at an earliest stage to Delta-Utec SRC.

5 Communication

Good communication between the different CoE's and Delta-Utec SRC is vital for a coordinated development of the YES2 project. Especially with the educational character and the wide distribution of Centers of Expertise throughout Europe and Russia, it will be vital to have open and easily accessible communication lines to keep everybody informed and to maintain a 'history' of all communication regarding YES2 design issues. Delta-Utec should be perceived as easily reachable and accessible in case of any perceived problems and/or technical questions related to the YES2 mission design.

5.1 Formal communication
Formal communication, e.g. to make design decisions, should be made either by email, or telephone after which Minutes of the telephone call shall be sent by email to Delta-Utec SRC. A Request for Spenditure will always be made via email using the Request for Spenditure template document.

5.2 Informal communication

Informal communication will be performed via telephone, email and chat software (e.g. MSN messenger). An Internet based groupware tool (e.g. e-project, PHProject) will be implemented where all group correspondence should take place and an up to date email list will always be available. The tool will also allow scheduling tasks, keeping a calendar, leaving notes etc. A separate chat tool can be used to have direct correspondence for questions to Delta-Utec system engineers and management. Specific chat sessions involving different team members will be scheduled by Delta-Utec SRC (e.g. Tuesday morning). A secure YES2 FTP server will be used by all team members for storing (working) documents, officially released YES2 documentation etc.

5.3 External communication
5.3.1 YES2 website

External communication, both to ESA and to the public, will be centralized at Delta-Utec. An official YES2 website is already available on the web and will be further expanded through the course of phase II development. The Centers of Expertise are invited to provide inputs for this website.

5.3.2 YES2 Newsletter

The Centers of Expertise shall provide monthly input for YES2 newsletters. These newsletters are distributed internally and via the YES2 website. Special YES2 newsletters can be dedicated to a specific CoE, YES2 event etc.

5.3.3 Public Relations material YES2 Brochure

Delta-Utec SRC will prepare a glossy YES2 brochure on the YES2 project to be released after PDR. This brochure will contain a description of the YES2 project, and will explain the role of each Center of Expertise in the project. About 1000 glossy brochures will be printed by ESA and each Center of Expertise will be provided on request up to 100 copies. Other

Other PR materials (posters etc.) that can be used by the Centers of Expertise for their YES2 room or other YES2 related activities will be developed by Delta-Utec during phase II. The Centers are also invited to develop their own material (shall be coordinated with Delta-Utec).

5.3.4 Other suggestions
The Centers of Expertise are invited to provide input on other means to improve the communication effort of the YES2 project.

6 Intellectual Properties
The University will maintain the intellectual properties on designs and inventions made during the YES2 project. Delta-Utec SRC and ESA will be given permission to use technologies resulting from YES2 for future educational projects.

7 Documentation
ESA/Delta-Utec will provide an FTP server on which all YES2 documents can be placed. For each Center of Expertise there will be a directory available for draft documents. Released documents will be placed in the appropriate structure. Part of this FTP server will be available via the World Wide Web.

7.1 Outgoing
The CoE is requested to provide finished YES2 documentation according to the YES2 standards. The YES2 document list will be provided to each CoE and will be downloadable from the YES2 FTP site. Students working on YES2 for their master thesis will be notified about the YES2 documentation they are expected to deliver at the end of their working period. Their results shall be provided in the form of YES2 documentation such as Technical Notes etc. 

7.2 Incoming
At the CoE there need to be printed copies of the applicable ECSS documentation and of the released YES2 documentation as flagged in the YES2 document list.

8 Agreement

It is intended to make an initial agreement between Delta-Utec SRC and each Center of Expertise (January 2004). On longer term (evaluation in 1 year) it is the intention of ESA to also formalize an agreement between the ESA education office and each center.
In order to move forward a Letter of Intention of each CoE is requested before the Preliminary Design Review of December 10th. In the Letter of Intention the CoE are kindly requested to comment on listing their expected difficulties in implementation of the CoE, so that we can take this into account in the preparation of the agreement.

9 Example Letter of Intention
To: Erik J van der Heide Delta-Utec SRC
Cc: Philippe Willekens ESA education office

Dear Mr van der Heide

I have read the YES2 Center of Expertise description and I would like to state with this letter that Delta-Utec has the intention to formalize an agreement so that we become a YES2 Center of Expertise.

My concern in formalizing the agreement lies in the Intellectual Property Definition ....
I see practical problems in the implementation for ....

However I see no obstacles for setting up the Center of Expertise in January and finding an agreement taking into account my concerns addressed above.

I am authorized for my organization to sign this Letter of Intend and I look forward to work out in more detail the agreement for this remarkable initiative.

Yours truly,

Michiel Kruijff
Technical Director Delta-Utec SRC

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  космонавтики им. К.Э. Циолковского (ПРО РАКЦ), 2002
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